Mobile Marketing & User Acquisition Glossary

  • A

    Ad Agencies

    An ad agency takes care of all ads for their clients. They create an advertising strategy, formulate the ads, buy space, manage advertising campaigns and track their performance. They could also handle branding for the businesses or organizations depending on the agreement they settle on.

  • Ad Completion

    Most video ads have an option to skip after the first few seconds (often five). When the viewer lets the ad play to the end; that is referred to as ad completion.

  • Ad Exchange

    Originally, ad networks would negotiate the price of media inventory with one another. An ad exchange helps to control the buying and selling process by providing a technology-based platform for auctioning the inventory. That way the publisher supply and the advertiser demand are matched.

  • Ad Impression

    Ad impressions refer to how many times an ad is fetched from its source for display to the end user. It does not matter whether the ad is clicked or not, as long as it is displayed, that counts as one impression.

  • Ad Integration

    Ad integration involves combining many media channels or tools under a blanket idea to improve the user experience. For example, a click on an integrated ad could lead the user to the products’ website. In ad integration, an ad request is followed by an equal response.

  • Ad Fraud

    A company perpetrating ad fraud deliberately forces advertisers to pay for something that will yield no returns. For instance, a website could rely on bots to refresh pages to show a high viewership and thus be more attractive to advertisers as a source of ad inventory.

  • Ad Network

    An ad network links advertisers and publishers. The network puts together publisher inventory and then sells it to other ad networks or advertisers.

  • Ad Operations (Ops)

    Ad ops empower decision makers by clarifying the ad tech ecosystem. For example, ad ops could troubleshoot problems within the programmatic ad process and solve the inefficiencies. Any process or system software that supports the delivery and sale of ads falls within ad operations.

  • Ad Tech

    All services, technologies, and software used in the control, targeting and delivery of online ads are referred to as advertising technology (ad tech).

  • Ad Request

    A user can take action within an app or on a website that causes information to be sent to the server to display the ad. That process of sending information to the server is called an ad request.

  • Ad Server

    An ad server stores advertising content. It is the platform that supports the delivery of ads in response to a user’s action on an app or website and tracks the users’ interaction with the ad, giving the publisher critical advertising metrics. Typically, the ad server not only manages the delivery of ads but also optimizes other processes such as reporting and monitoring the performance of campaigns.

  • Ad Sources

    An ad source returns responses to ad requests. It could allocate traffic, display ads, determines pricing or gives reports. Ad sources could be systems such as ad networks, ad managers, ad exchanges and ad servers.

  • Ad Space

    Ad space is an area in a website or an app that is designed to drive revenue through advertising. An ad space could have many units.

  • Ad Unit

    An ad unit is a piece of code that displays as an advertising message. It could be a video ad, interstitial or banner ad.

  • Ad Slot

    This is the specific location of an ad on the hosting page.

  • Ads ‘N’velope

    It enables you to monetize your Android app easily. With an ad ‘n’velope, there is no need for coding; you can simply ad exit ad slots. That way, developers are able to maximize inventory and eCPM by offering rich media, interstitial and video ads on app exits and launches.

  • Addressable Market Size

    This is the number of game players that could potentially be engaged by a specific game. Addressable market size helps to determine the revenue opportunity.

  • Advertiser

    An advertiser’s main job is to create and exploit leads to drive sales by packaging and conveying the message to suit the proper audience in the right moments.

  • An advertisement promotes a product, service or event. It could be in the form of multimedia content, text or graphics.

  • Affiliate Marketing

    This is an arrangement where an online retailer or content provider pays an external site for the traffic or the sales they generate for the retailer.

  • Agency Trading Desk (ATD)

    ATDs are platforms run by agencies that seek to improve the performance of their clients’ ads.

  • Aggregator

    An aggregator puts together a mobile inventory.

  • Animation

    As the name suggests, an animation relies on technology to give the illusion of movement even though the sequential images used are not necessarily in motion.

  • Android

    Google’s mobile OS (operating system)

  • AOR

    An agency of record is authorized to buy advertising space or time for the businesses that contract them.

  • App Reviews

    App reviews are left by app users in the Google Play Store or iOS App Store. They help to determine whether a game or app performs as it promises, is reliable and free of offensive content. The higher rated an app is, the more likely it will influence new installs.

  • Application Programming Interface (API)

    APIs are tools that connect software. An API, for example, could allow an application to access the features of an OS. They do this by sharing information between the two technologies. To the user, APIs mean an improved experience because they allow data to be consolidated and therefore easily retrievable. In advertising, CRM is under important for interfacing with databases. A good CRM will have good API capabilities so that it is able to run campaigns flawlessly.

  • App Developer

    An app developer creates software and applications. In advertising, developers sell ad space to advertisers as one way to monetize their apps.

  • App Monetization

    App monetization helps developers to make money off their applications without charging for the apps themselves. Developers do this by selling data to third parties, app download promotions, and in-app advertising.

  • Average Revenue Per User (ARPU)

    Digital media, consumer communications, and networking companies often use the term ARPU to refer to the total monthly revenue divided by the number of users.

  • Average Revenue Per Purchasing User (ARPPU)

    ARPPU is often used in freemium games to find out how much paying users have spent and is normally calculated by dividing total revenues by total paying users.

  • Average Revenue Per Daily Active User (ARPDAU)

    ARPDAU is useful in finding out the total game earnings per player, per day; usually calculated by- total daily revenue divided by active users per day.

  • App Store Optimization (ASO)

    This is a process used to improve the visibility of apps in the app stores by making sure that the content (description, icon, and keywords) is optimized.

  • Attribution

    In lay man’s terms, attribution is about determining the type of media that is driving purchases. It uses technology to measure metrics that help the advertiser to determine the effectiveness of a campaign.

  • Attribution Tool

    An attribution tool looks at the activities of a particular user in an app to determine how effective marketing campaigns have been regarding the user.

  • Attribution Window

    When performing attribution, there is a period within which an impression or ad click turns to a conversion. This is referred to as an attribution window. Attribution windows are measured per-partner and make part of advertising contracts.

  • Audio

    A sound or audible file that plays with ads is called audio. As a rule of thumb, audios should only play if the user clicks on them.

  • Auction

    An auction is a buying and selling process where the good goes to the highest bidder. In advertising, buyers bid on ad inventory to buy, for example, an available impression. The auction takes place in less than 200 milliseconds.

  • A/B Testing (or Multivariate Testing)

    A/B testing compares two or more variables to pick the most effective. The process is often used in in-game messaging.

  • B

    Banner ads are graphical displays on a webpage that normally combine both a static or animated video and a text. The idea behind the ads (as with all other ads) is to communicate a branded message with the aim of prompting a response from the user. Also called ‘display ads’; banner ads are normally defined by height, and width and they are pixelated.

  • A site or app can have so many banners that the user looks beyond them, a concept called banner blindness.

  • Banner messages appear for a few seconds in a game app, at the top of the screen.

  • Behavioral Targeting

    Advertisers use behavioral targeting to reach their audience with a customized message/ad. They base the ad off the users’ previous browsing behaviors to not just determine what ads they see, but also the manner in which the ads appear. The technique can either be network or on-site behavioral targeting. The former refers to targeting done by a single domain while the latter is targeting across networked sites.

  • Between-the-Page

    Interstitial or between-the-page ads display as the user moves from one page to another. The ad shows as soon as the user leaves page A but before they get to page B. The ad is often self-contained and in a different window so that it does not display as a page B overlay.

  • Billboard

    Billboards resemble banner ads except in size. Billboards are taller and better suited for text.

  • Bitrate

    Bitrate refers to bits processed within a specific time, usually a second. They are often measured in kilobits, megabits or bits per second. The bitrate is a major factor in determining the quality of a video or audio.

  • Branding vs. Performance

    When a mobile marketer is launching a campaign, they have either of two goals: to track performance or to brand. When they market for performance, they are pushing for immediate metrics such as increasing revenue, getting more users or increasing the number of registrations. When a campaign is geared towards branding, the idea is to promote brand loyalty and long-term engagement. The results are less tangible and visible mostly in the long-term.

  • Boost/Burst Campaign

    A developer could run a burst campaign to increase the overall app ranking. They do this by driving many installs over a short period. Eventually, the high rankings improve visibility and attract organic users.

  • Big Data

    This is a term used for data that requires complex analytics to measure, interpret and to store.

  • Bot

    A bot is an application capable of running automated tasks. Often, the tasks at hand are repetitive but simple in nature and are impossible to do at high rates, for humans alone.

  • Button

    If a banner ad is small, either 120*90 or 125 * 125, it is referred to as a button.

  • C

    Casual Game

    Casual games target a general audience. Their rules are easy to follow and the controls are just as simple. It doesn’t matter the genre, as long as the game does not call for much player commitment and the gameplay is short, the game falls into this category.

  • Campaign (Ad)

    A campaign is a set time within which marketers execute an ad delivery strategy.

  • Call to Action

    A call to action is an instruction given to the user to inform their response to a campaign. They could, for example, opt-in to a promotion, after which, they are directed to a landing page.

  • Content Distribution Network (CDN)

    A CDN is a network of servers within different geographical locations that give web content. The files are pulled from the CDN depending on where the user is. The closer the delivery server is to the requesting server, the faster the response and the better the user experience.

  • Click to Call

    Click to call is a type of ad integration that allows the user to respond to a phone call without leaving the mobile ad.

  • Click-through

    Click-through is the event where the users’ ad click takes them to a landing page on the advertisers’ website, to an app store or to a specific place in the app.

  • Click-through Rate (CTR)

    CTR is calculated by the dividing the number of clicks by the number of impressions. It is one way to measure the success of a campaign.

  • Click URL

    A publisher who is getting paid per click will want to know how many clicks they get. As such, they use URLs that track clicks. A partner pings them every time there is a click.

  • Close X

    This is a tool that the users clicks on to remove an ad from view or to return an expanded panel to its normal size.

  • Collapse

    When an ad panel collapses, it goes back to its original size from an expanded view, or it disappears altogether.

  • Completed Video/View

    A completed view refers to a users’ statistics of 100% video ad play. Often, such users proceed to click on a call-to-action.

  • Conversion

    A marketer could be looking to register more subscribers or to sell a product. When the user gets through a marketing effort such as an ad and takes the desired action in response; that is referred to as a conversion. It is sometimes also referred to as an action or acquisition.

  • Conversion rate (CR)

    The conversion rate is a measure of the marketing efforts (clicks or impressions) against the conversions.

  • Conversion Rate Optimization (CRO)

    A high conversion rate means a more successful campaign. Conversion rate optimization is the process through which the marketer changes the campaign parameters in a bid to improve the conversion rate.

  • Control Group

    A control group is a standard segment of people that help you determine the success of marketing efforts. Normally, the group remains unchanged in terms of marketing efforts. That way, you can compare the results to another group that is getting new campaigns.

  • A cookie is a term used to refer to small data files stored in a user’s browser. The data could be, for example, the preferences of the user in a specific website. Advertisers use cookies to capture the behavior of the user.

  • Cost per Active User (CPAU)

    Whether it is a download, a subscription or a purchase, when a user takes action, the advertiser pays for it at a given pre-set price – usually the CPAU.

  • Cost per Click (CPC)

    In some advertising agreements, the advertiser pays only for ads that have been clicked. The cost per click is the amount they are charged.

  • Cost per Install (CPI)

    Whenever a marketer’s efforts result in an app installation, he gets paid at a particular cost. That price is referred to as the cost per install.

  • Cost per Lead (CPL)

    The cost per lead refers to how the number of leads a campaign produces relate to the cost of the entire campaign.

  • Cost per Mile (CPM)

    The cost per mile measures what an advertiser pays for 1000 impressions. CPM was the first digital advertising payment model but is being outpaced as a pricing model. Often, advertisers will compare their total advertising expenditure with the total impressions they get for a campaign to get a feel of their eCPM (effective cost per mile) even if that is not in their contract as a pricing model.

  • Cost per Completed Video/View (CPCV)

    Sometimes advertisers use this to determine how much they pay for a video that has been viewed to the end.

  • Cost per Video/View (CPV)

    CPV measures what it costs the advertiser to display the video ad in the first place.

  • CPA Mobile Campaign

    In this advertising model, the publisher gets paid after a user takes action linked to each ad. For example, the advertiser could pay when a user registers after making an installation.

  • CPC Mobile Campaign

    This advertising model has the advertiser paying for every ad click. It is calculated by dividing the total cost by the number of clicks the ad gets.

  • CPCV Mobile Campaign

    Unlike the cost per click, in the cost per completed view, the publisher gets paid only when the user completes action and not just clicks on the ad.

  • CPE Mobile Campaign

    In the cost per engagement model, the advertiser will pay after the user interacts with the ad. For example, when a user expands an ad unit, the publisher receives payment.

  • CPI Mobile Campaign

    Here, the publisher receives payment when a user installs an app following an ad. However, the app has to open first. CPI is calculated by dividing the total costs of the campaign by the number of app installs.

  • Creative

    A creative is an ad unit that accounts for the guidelines and specifications of the publisher and still communicates the marketing message. A single creative could be layered with files in different formats. It could have, for example, execution files, animation, videos and images all working together to enhance the experience of the user.

  • Creative Dimensions

    Creative dimensions are measured in pixels but are represented ad height and width. The width always is listed first and then followed by height, like in 400 * 350. In the example, the ad is 400 pixels wide and 350 pixels high.

  • Cross-platform

    This term is often used when the marketer needs to focus their marketing efforts on different platforms or devices. For example, efforts targeted at the desktop, mobile web, and the tablet at the same time can be referred to as cross-platform.

  • Cross-channel

    Cross-channel media or technology can be used across many devices or formats. They differ from cross-device. Cross-device refers to many applications but not necessarily many formats within the devices.

  • Cohorts

    Cohorts are users who have finished a given action within a specified time. They differ from segments because they introduce the element of time. For example, users who download an app in July are cohorts.

  • Cohort Analysis

    This is a method that studies how cohorts behave over a period. The aim is to determine app churn rate and customer loyalty.

  • Churn Rate

    Churn rate refers to the number of users who stop using an app over a set time.

  • Customer/User Acquisition Cost (CAC)

    CAC is a measure of the expenses around new player acquisition. CAC is normally the rate between the total investment in acquisition activities and the number of new players during the time the efforts were at play.

  • Customer Behavior

    Customer behavior refers to actions taken by the users that give insight into marketing efforts. In a mobile app, these efforts will show engagement like, purchases, downloads and views.

  • Customer Engagement

    When a customer responds to a branded message, that is called customer engagement. They could interact with the message by commenting on a post on social media, opening an app, reading an email or even visiting a website. Brands often use push notifications, social media posts or other customer outreach methods to encourage consistency concerning brand engagement. They track it during campaigns to see whether their message is helpful to their customers and to get insight into their audience. For example, they could determine what percentage or segment of their audience is likely to churn and take action to avoid that.

  • Customer Events/Attributes

    Customer attributes and events help to develop content personalized to different segments. Events could include information such as recent purchases, number of sessions and when last a message was received. Attributes, on the other hand, are user data points such as gender, location, name and age. This information works together to help marketers to develop campaigns that will be relevant to their customers.

  • Customer Permissions

    These are requests made by brands on behalf of their customers regarding websites or mobile apps. For example, a brand could request to access customer data, or it could ask to send emails, push notifications or other messages. Customer permissions will determine the kinds of messages marketers can send their customers and the kind of data they gather.

  • Customer Retention

    Customer retention is a measure of the customers who keep engaging with a brand beyond the first interaction. Retention is measured over time. For example, one could measure the number of customers in a cohort who keep engaging a month later. Retention can be expressed in percentage or raw numbers.

  • D

    Daily Active Users (DAU)

    DAU is a metric for determining how many users visit or interact with your app each day.

  • Dashboards

    A dashboard displays KPIs, analytics and metrics in data form. Data from the dashboard is easy to interpret.

  • Data Management Platform (DMP)

    A DMP collects data in various forms and structures it to produce information that can be used to for example, target a certain market segment. DMPs improve efficiency in media selling and buying activities.

  • Deal ID

    In programmatic marketing, deal ID matches sellers and buyers individually. The matches are based on criteria discussed earlier. Criteria can include the type of ad units, the site section and the minimum price an advertiser can bid.

  • Deep Linking

    Deep linking brings innovation to the way customers will interact with a product. Instead of pop-up ads, deep linking interconnects mobile apps the way the internet operates with clickable links. The publisher sends the user to a screen within the app that is different from the landing page on app store.

  • Deferred Deep Linking

    Deferred deep linking is deep linking but with the ability to reach users who have not installed the app yet. Publishers do this by persisting the link until the user installs and launches the mobile app.

  • Demand (in ad tech)

    Demand describes ads, advertisers and publishers in the digital space together with other parties who may be involved in the buying and selling of ads.

  • Demand Side Platform (DSP)

    A DSP helps advertisers to manage an automated process of buying from different publisher sites simultaneously. The DSP also connects the advertiser with the consumer within the same interface. In short, an advertiser can perform all ad procedures within one platform; including buying ad space, delivering the ads and tracking them.

  • Destination URL

    Also called download URL, the destination URL is the page where users are redirected to during an ad campaign, typically a page on an app store.

  • Device Fragmentation

    Device fragmentation resembles OS fragmentation. It refers environments where users use different generation devices. For example, the Android market is more fragmented than iOS phone market. The former has over 1000 phones making for 99% of market use while the latter has only seven phones.

  • Device Identifier (DID)

    A DID identifies in-app activity for a specific device.

  • Dimensions

    Dimensions are structures that categorize facts so that they can be used to answer business questions or for analysis and comparisons.

  • Direct Media Buy

    This is an agreement between a publisher and an advertiser to acquire a specified amount of inventory at a specific cost.

  • Digital Advertising

    ny advertising delivered through digital media platforms (such as websites, SEM, social media, mobile advertising and email campaigns) is considered digital advertising.

  • Display Advertising

    This is a form of advertising online where you show the message in a box at the bottom, top or side of a web page.

  • Digital Market Area (DMA)

    Digital marketing areas are segmentations of several markets by region and population.

  • Duration

    Duration refers to how much time (in months) a player plays a game on average. It is normally calculated by dividing the time in months by churn.

  • Dynamic Content

    Dynamic content is ever changing information that informs customer interactions and messaging. Personalization in this case goes beyond attributes such as city and name. It uses APIs to also update the database with relevant information including details such as the weather, news headlines and movie times which can be inserted into a direct message. Dynamic content only works effectively if it is based off a robust marketing strategy and technology and only if the CRM is able to utilize information that it has captured through APIs. For example, a user could see an in-house engine recommendation or special offers based on the accounts they are following or the weather.

  • Dynamic Creative

    This is a form of advertising that will auto-change when the viewer changes.

  • E


    EdgeRank is the algorithm that Facebook uses to determine the kind of content that will be displayed in a user’s News Feed.

  • Effective Cost per Action (eCPA)

    ECPA is a pricing model used in online advertising to determine how effective advertising is to triggering user actions that are different from clicks (CPC) and installs (CPI).

  • Effective Cost per Mille (eCPM)

    ECPM is a measure of the publishers’ inventory value on the basis of the price per 1000. It is calculated by dividing the total spent by impressions and then multiplying the result by 1000.

  • Engagement Rate

    This is a measure of the total impressions that cover comments, likes and clicks across platform metrics and is expressed as a percentage. It determines the frequency with which players interact with an app. The higher the engagement rate, the more indicative it is that users enjoy the app. Engagement rate is determined by dividing DAU by MAU.

  • Engaged User

    An engaged user takes an action with your app.

  • Events

    Events are actions that are taken within a game. For instance, an in-app purchase could be an event. The event has to be trackable on an analytics platform.

  • Event Attributes

    The contexts around events make event attributes. For instance, when a user completes are level (event) the attributes could include details such as the length and name of the level.

  • Expandable Ads

    Expandable ads have adjustable dimensions beyond what the user first sees. They can be adjusted to fill the page, for example. The user has the prerogative of expanding the event but the ad can be made to expand a little on its own to catch the attention of the user.

  • Expanded Dimensions

    Expanded dimensions are the new dimensions that an expandable ad unit takes after adjusting. Normally the initial dimensions fit the placement on the page. After a user’s action or by auto-play, the unit expands to the secondary dimensions.

  • F

    Fill Rate

    The fill rate is a ration of the number of delivered ads and the number of ad requests. It is a measure of the ability of inventory to meet demand.

  • First-party Data

    This is information that an advertiser has gained directly from interacting with consumers that is used when making campaign decisions.

  • Fingerprint Matching

    This is an attribution method that matches events, installs and opens to their corresponding impressions and ad clicks. Normally, the methodology does this by redirecting the user to a measurement URL that then collects basic data like the IP address from the device header. Fingerprint matching comes handy where unique IDs such as IFA are unavailable.

  • Floor Price

    During an auction, the starting price is the floor price. It allows the owners of inventory some control over how much their inventory is worth.

  • First Time User Experience (FTUE)

    FTUE is the first experience a player has in a game. It covers everything from game tutorials to configurations and settings. The developer has a responsibility to make sure that the player has a good FTUE so that they stay in the game.

  • Frames Per Second (FPS)

    For video or animated content, FPS refers to the frame rate of the content.

  • Frame Rate

    Measured in fps (frames per second), the frame rate is the rate that animated images or a video display executes.

  • Freemium

    This is a strategy for pricing where the media, game, web service or software id provided freely but proprietary features, virtual goods, or functionalities are charged at a premium.

  • Frequency

    Frequency refers to the rate at which users see an ad

  • Frequency Capping

    Frequency capping is limiting ad impressions to a number of user based interactions such as installs, clicks, and views.

  • Funds

    The monies used in advertising are called funds. Advertisers will need to add funds to their platforms on different ad networks so that they can run their ad campaigns. Publishers also transfer what they earn as funds to promote their apps. Funds re transferred through cheques, PayPal or wire transfers.

  • Funnels

    Funnels show the movement of players through events in a game. Marketers use them to find out for example, the number of players exiting after an event. Consequently, they are able to determine where their retention efforts fall short. Funnels are, therefore, important to decision making regarding design and business in general.

  • G

    Game Analytics

    Game analytics are metrics, tools and qualitative measures that track game events to get data that can be used for analysis. The goal of a game analytics platform is to provide insights that inform business decisions and game design. That information the platform provides can be measured and acted upon but its comprehensiveness depends on the platforms capabilities

  • Gamification

    When non-game platforms or apps have elements of game play such as reward points; that is referred to as gamification.

  • Game Marketing

    Game marketing is a role within an organization that promotes games and pushes metrics such as monetization and retention. It involves activities that co-ordinate towards the specific goals such as getting and keeping new players.

  • Geo–Targeting

    Geo-targeting refers to the practice of delivering advertisements or different content to people based on their locations.

  • Geo-location

    This refers to the practice of determining where a person or device is using their co-ordinates.

  • Google AID

    Google AID (advertising identifier) is a unique ID that is user specific and can be reset that users get through Google Play services. The user can choose to reset their ID or opt-out of ads that are based on their profile.

  • Grinders

    Grinders are players who keep to a F2P game but make no in-app purchases. A grinder prefers to wait for items to be freely available or resigns to using only a part of the game instead of spending money to get the additional features.

  • H


    Hashing allows companies to match data sets without being able to access each other’s data.

  • H.264

    H.264 is a format for video coding whose compression standard is motion-compensating and block-oriented. H.264/MPEG-4 format is popular for compressing, distributing and recording video content.

  • HTTP Live Streaming (HLS)

    HLS is an Apple Inc. implemented media streaming protocol based on HTTP. Typically, HLS breaks the general stream into small HTTP based downloads so that each of them will load as a chunk of the overall. While the user plays the stream, they can decide how many streams with different data rates they want in a streaming session. That way, they adapt the stream to an available data rate. When the streaming session is beginning, HLS avails an M3U playlist with sub-stream metadata.

  • Hypertext Markup Language, version 5 (HTML5)

    HTML5 allows the extension of features such as video and audio tags without the use of APIs and plug-ins. It works also as an alternative to executing Adobe Flash interactions.

  • I

    Identifier for Advertising (IDFA, also IFA)

    IFA is a data collecting method from apps using iOS 6 or newer versions. It helps advertisers to serve ads to an app, attribute installations to former ads and to match post-install actions with the corresponding users.

  • Impression

    Impressions help advertisers to determine how many times an ad has been seen. One view is counted as one impression. Ad networks count ad impressions as when the specific ad loads on a page regardless of whether the viewer has clicked on it or not.

  • Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB)

    IAB is an organization of about 700 companies working to develop best digital advertising practices and technical standards.

  • In-App Advertising

    This is a term used to refer to branded messages delivered to target audiences within mobile apps. The message can be in the form of a video, rich media, native ad or banner ad.

  • In-App Message

    An in-app message is a piece of information broadcasted to customers using an app, within the app.

  • In-App Purchases (IAP)

    An in-app purchase is a sale of a service or product within an app. For example, a user could use real money to buy currency to use in the game or an upgrade.

  • In-Banner Video

    An in-banner video is triggered by a display ad on a web page. It is usually delivered as part of the banner.

  • In-Stream

    When an ad shows up inside a piece of content, it is referred to as an in-stream ad. The content could be anything from a promoted tweet to a YouTube video.

  • In-Stream Video

    An in-stream video plays in a designated player. Most often, in-stream videos used VAST XML to allow the videos to render properly.

  • Incent Traffic

    Incent traffic is traffic that comes from all advertisements that offer rewards for taking a specific action.

  • Incentivized

    A marketing program that has been incentivized gives users rewards when they take an action like trying a new app. App marketers use incentivized marketing strategies to amp their campaigns and get many new users within a short time.

  • Initial Dimension

    For an expandable ad, the initial dimension, usually measured in pixels and expressed in width and height, is the size of the ad before expansion.

  • Initial File Load

    All files that are needed to finish a complete display of a banner ad make the initial file load. They could be images, JS files, html or CSS files; they work together to enhance the user’s browsing experience by preserving the performance of the page. Non-rich media ads only allow the initial file load to run ads.

  • Interactive In-App Pre-Roll

    These are video ads on tablets or smartphones that have rich media. These interactive interstitial ads can expand to full-screen and the user has to exit to view different content.

  • Interactive Pre-Roll

    Interactive pre-roll ads play or display before video content. They often have rich media properties and interactive features such as zip-code locators, overlays, and video galleries.

  • Interest-Based Advertising (IBA)

    IBA also goes by ‘behavioral advertising’. Typically, advertisers will utilize their inventory sources to collect information about a user. They will use information such as the sites the user visits and the frequency to determine the kind of things that might interest him/her. They will then target the user with content that fits into their forecast. For example, a company that sells sporting shoes might buy inventory from an ad network where the users recently visited sites that relate to sports.

  • Infection Rate

    If game players are sharing your game, the rate at which they do this is referred to as the infection rate. Popular games tend to have high infection rates.

  • Installs

    Installs refer to the number of times users have started using an app due to specific advertising efforts. Normally, the source responsible for the last impression gets credit. Those apps that are difficult to attribute are shelved under ‘organic installs.’

  • Install Attribution

    This is information on the link that a user follows to download a new up. Normally, install attribution helps to establish ROI and to track user preferences. App marketers use install attribution to get information as to the whereabouts of the user before they made the install. The data can then be leveraged to enhance the performance of future campaigns. The data is also typically the first information marketers get regarding personalization.

  • Install Assists

    In some cases, the partner is unable to track the last impression. However, if that impression still happened within the window of attribution before the conversion, the advertiser gets attribution.

  • Install Referrer

    Google’s install referrer is a URL that allows the advertiser to track referrals for installation via Google Play Store. Google analytics relies on the install referrer to populate your account page with campaign information.

  • Install Volume

    Install volume refers to the number of times that a mobile application has been downloaded and installed.

  • Insertion Order (IO)

    An IO is an agreement that spells the specifications between an agency, ad network or publisher and the advertiser. The IO informs how advertising inventory is treated.

  • Interstitial Ads

    Interstitial ads cover the applications’ host and shows up between transitions from one page or game level to another.

  • Inventory

    Inventory is the available ad space that the publisher can sell. Inventory is also all impressions that a publisher or ad network can give with over a period.

  • iOS

    IOS is Apple’s operating system made for Apple devices only.

  • J


    When a user removes restrictions or limitations on hardware so that they can now temper with the hardware settings; that is called jailbreaking.

  • K

    K Factor

    The K factor measures how fast a game is spreading due to an activity that has gone viral online. The K factor is a product of the conversion rate and the infection rate.

  • Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

    KPIs are metrics for performance that the advertiser defines earlier on. They determine the success of marketing efforts.

  • L

    Landing Page

    The landing page is a page on a website where visitors first get to after they click on an ad or through SEO results.

  • Last Click

    Most digital advertising attribution models are based on the last click; that is, the click that was closest to the conversion time.

  • Limited Ad Tacking (LAT)

    Limited ad tracking is a setting on Microsoft and iOS that a user can enable to show that they want to be exempt from targeted advertising. Typically, a developer must honor the wishes of the user and follow the LAT setting.

  • Lifetime Value (LTV)

    LTV is a metric for revenue that represents the total financial value your app has in relation to what every user is worth.

  • Location-based Services (LBC)

    A location based service is any service that users the location information of its users. For example, in campaign targeting, mobile advertisers collect information from internal GPS’ which helps them to target the user on a granular level.

  • Location-based Advertising

    This is an advertising model based on where the target audiences are found – their geographic co-ordinates.

  • Lock Screen Messages

    Lock screen messages display on the screen of a tablet or smart phone while it’s locked or in sleeping mode. The user can decide to set up a password that allows them to have to unlock the device before taking any action.

  • Long Tail Keywords

    Long tail keywords are long and specific phrases that a visitor is likely to use when searching online for something that they need.

  • M


    A macro is a string variable that keeps changing. It is attached to postback and measurement URLs and serves as a dynamic data placeholder.

  • M-Commerce

    M-commerce is short for mobile commerce. It is mostly used to refer to retail apps.

  • Media buying

    Media buying drives advertising. It is the process through which an advertiser buys media space from a publisher, ad network or any other media own for their client. The advertiser tries to get the most effective space at the best price.

  • Mediation

    Mediation refers to the practice of managing and optimizing aps from many ad networks using one interface. Normally, publishers use programmed systems to be able to fill ads from many networks. They also often rely on mediation to get rid of remnant and unsold inventory.

  • Management platform

    Data informs all aspects of advertising and management platforms exist to help advertisers make sense of this data. An audience management platform (AMP) helps towards the goal by segmenting the market while a data management platform (DMP) acts like a warehouse for all data belonging to an advertiser.

  • Measurement URL

    A measurement URL helps advertisers to track impressions and ad clicks. It is used for attributing conversions. An advertising partner normally links all their ads to measurement URLs so that any ad clicks from the user are saved for attribution.

  • Monthly Active Users (MAU)

    MAU is used to find out how many people are using a game up within thirty days. With MAU, publishers can determine the performance of a game. However, they need to establish game parameters that classify the user as active.

  • Mobile App

    A mobile app is an application that can be downloaded for install and use on the mobile device.

  • Mobile App Advertising

    This is any advertising regardless of format that targets mobile devices.

  • Mobile Marketing

    Mobile marketing is marketing based off mobile technology. It describes any way that an app ad creative takes advantage of tablets and smart phones to collect customer data and behavior and to use this information to reach the particular customers through messages such as emails, push notifications and in-app messages. Thanks to mobile marketing, marketers can get their message across to their audience in a way that appeals to very specific audience preferences and characteristics.

  • Mobile Marketing Automation

    Mobile marketing automation uses technology to amplify and automate the efforts of marketers to reach users. It is based on software that can take over responsibilities such as messaging to help brands to reach out to, engage and retain an audience that they can monetize with little effort. Mobile marketing automation software comes handy when the audience grows in volume. Traditionally, it was associated with those brands with apps; however, it can also help the effectiveness of marketing efforts based on mobile websites.

  • Mobile Moment

    A mobile moment is an event where the user depends on their mobile phone to acquire what they need, when they want it. Marketers then have the duty to establish ways to create these moments for their users.

  • Mobile Network

    A mobile network forms the basic infrastructure that allows mobile operators to make data and voice transfers using radio frequencies.

  • Mobile Pre-Roll

    Mobile pre-roll ads are in-stream or in-app video ads that have standard features such as click through.

  • Mobile Rich Media Ad Interface Definition (MRAID)

    MRAID protocol fosters communication between mobile apps and ads helping them to execute interactions like ad resizing, accelerometer and geo-location.

  • Mobile Web

    The mobile web refers to internet services accessible on mobile devices via browsers. Advertisers can send messages through in-app and mobile web placements.

  • Moov Atom

    A moov atom executes a video. It is a data object that is put at the start of a video file without which execution would be an issue.

  • Monetization

    Monetization is the money making process off a game. The term is commonly used to describe strategies that use KPIs and increase profits.

  • Multi-Channel Marketing

    When advertisers use many channels in a marketing campaign to get access to the same players; that is referred to as multi-channel marketing.

  • Multivariate Testing

    Multivariate testing modifies variables to see which ones work together to drive the best results. It differs from A/B testing in that it uses many variables. For example, multivariate testing can be used to test web page elements.

  • N

    Native Ads

    Native ads fit within the user experience for a specific app, feeling like they were designed with the app. For example, an interstitial ad or video ad can have the same theme as content in a user’s newsfeed so that it is unobtrusive. Typically, such native ads are labeled as ‘promoted’ or ‘sponsored’.

  • Native App

    A native app was categorically developed for a specific platform or device.

  • Net Promoter Score (NBS)

    NBS measures the loyalty of a user to an app on a scale of one to ten.

  • Non-incent Traffic

    This refers to traffic directed from ads that had no incentives or rewards.

  • Non-windowed Contributions

    Non-windowed contributions are impressions, clicks or other interactions that came before a conversion but were outside the attribution window.

  • O

    Offer Wall

    An offer wall appears in your app to direct users to different incentives or rewards if they spend money or perform another specified action.

  • Operating System (OS)

    Devices run on operating systems. Examples of OS’ include iOS, Blackberry, Android and Windows. During marketing, one of the things advertisers target is the type of OS, so that for example, they could send a unified message to iOS users.

  • Open Exchange

    This is a digital advertising market with inventory from many sources and advertising partners. Buyers can access the exchanges to bid programmatically or manually to buy media space.

  • Opt-In / Opt –In Prompt

    A ‘opt-in’ prompt requests the user to grant permission to be subscribed to a service.

  • Opt-Out

    When a user refuses to subscribe to any kind of texting services, they are said to have opted-out.

  • Optimization

    Optimization is about making digital campaigns efficient. Commonly, these campaigns rely on algorithms to optimize (programmatically). The bots are able to analyze the spend of the campaign and the results against the campaign goals to make sure that the advertiser gets the most out of their ad spend strategies. For example, a bot might determine what the most effective sources of traffic are and at the same time rank the loyal users of an app.

  • Organic Installs

    Organic installs are any app installations without attribution. They happen when the user did not make the installation in response to a campaign strategy but instead sought the app proactively. Organic installs help mobile advertisers to get engaged users who have high LTV.

  • Organic Uplift

    Organic uplift refers to the percent increase in organic downloads after ad campaigns.

  • OS Fragmentation

    A fragmented OS is one which is in use in different versions. Normally, this complicates the development process. Developers have to form different versions of an app to operate as should in every OS version.

  • P

    Partner Adoption

    Partner adoption refers to how broadly a partner has worked with y clients. It is a reflection of the type of clients that rely on a specific partner to run their campaigns.

  • Pay per Click (PPC)

    This is an advertising campaign type that allows advertisers to give publishers a percentage of what they earn from every ad click.

  • Pay per Download

    In pay per download, payments are made based on individual downloads.

  • Personalization

    Personalization is the process of customizing a mobile app to user needs.

  • Platform

    The different OS’ that mobile devices rely on to access gaming apps are called platforms. Some games are normally tailored to their platform while others work well across different platforms.

  • Player Relationship Management (PRM)

    PRM is the process that manages how the players interact. The point of it is to improve KPIs.

  • Polite file load

    Since the 2015 display creative guidelines, the polite file load was replaced by the ‘host-initiated subload.’ The polite file load stops a part of the ad creative file from loading on the webpage until the content of the publisher has fully loaded.

  • Pop-up Ad

    A pop-up ad is triggered as a second browser window when a user performs an action on the initial browser. It enables advertisers to deliver ad impressions over the initial window.

  • Premium Inventory

    This is data or ad inventory that is high in demand. It fetches the highest ROI.

  • Pre and Post-app Ads

    Pre app ads ate displayed before an app launches while post-app ads display as a user exits from an app.

  • Pre/Post-roll

    Pre-roll refers to streaming an ad before video content while in post-roll, the ad plays after the video content.

  • Preview (app preview)

    A preview is a short video that explains the basic features of an app and aims at highlighting the benefits of the app to the user.

  • Private Marketplace (PMP)

    A private marketplace gives advertisers an opportunity to carry out ‘private’ deals with publishers via RTB technology.

  • Programmatic

    Programmatic buying and sale of digital ad inventory relies on data and technology to replace human to human negotiations. Algorithms are able to trade on inventory based on the conditions pre-set by the buyer and seller.

  • Programmatic Buying

    Programmatic buying is an automated or self-serve media acquisition process.

  • Programmatic Direct

    In programmatic direct, you are able to make a direct deal within specific conditions to secure a space that is guaranteed without having to take part in an auction.

  • Programmatic Selling

    Programmatic selling is an automated distribution process for digital media inventory.

  • Programmatic Trading

    Programmatic trading is a combination of programmatic buying and selling – the two market processes are automated.

  • Progress Bar

    A progress bar is an animation or video control that directs users to know the progress of the video as a part of the whole.

  • Publisher

    In digital marketing, a publisher refers to the mobile website or app that is responsible for displaying an ad. In most cases, an app doubles as a publisher –it serves ads – and advertiser – it also buys ads in other apps.

  • Push notification

    A push notification is a short message designed to grab the attention of the user. Often, push notifications appear on the user’s screen without prompt.

  • R

    Ranking Algorithm

    Ranking algorithms determine the order in which apps appear on Google Play or Apple App Store. While the formula the algorithms use remains unknown, Apple’s algorithm is known to rely on velocity and volume of downloads and Google’s algorithms weighs other factors such as user engagement, social shares and SEO ratings.

  • Reach

    Reach refers to the total number of unique users who have interacted with your advertising efforts.

  • Real Time Biding (RTB)

    RTB refers to the process of selling and buying ad impressions in a live auction.

  • Real Time Bidding (RTB) Exchange

    A RTB exchange enables real time bidding. It is a platform that advertisers use to see and bid on ad spaces from different publishers based on their pre-set parameters. In a real time bidding exchange, the inventory goes to the highest bidder – it works the way a stock exchange works. Generally, publishers selling their inventory in exchanges see better revenues.

  • Re-engagement

    Re-engagement refers to marketing efforts that target already existing users. The idea behind the campaigns is to motivate the users to engage better with the app or to encourage those who had stopped altogether to start again. Re-engagement campaigns target users who might have lapsed in their app use and make a relevant promotion for them. To determine the effectiveness of their re-engagement efforts, marketers look at the conversion rates following the campaign.

  • Remnant Inventory

    Remnant inventory is ad space that a network or publisher has not used. This inventory is often sold at discount prices or offered as a promotional material.

  • Resolution

    Resolution refers to the quality of a video or image files and is determined by the number of pixels on display in the screen. It is normally expressed as width and length. However, resolution can also be determined by accounting for pixel density and ratio.

  • Retargeting

    Retargeting is getting a message in the eyes of a consumer based on their browsing activity. It allows advertisers to re-engage visitors who are yet to be converted. Normally, the user is targeted with other ads as they go through different sites.

  • Retention Rate

    Measured as a percentage of the total, retention rate refers to the number of people who after downloading a game, keep coming back to play it for a given period. Mobile developers are keen on studying the first days after a user installs an app. It is during this period that many installs take place especially if the game does not meet the expectations of the user. The retention rate in those first few days is measured per day. For example, one can have the day 1 retention as a percentage of all the players who come back to play the game the next day. Advertisers analyze retention to be able to pinpoint the reasons for churning.

  • Return on advertising spend (ROAS)

    ROAS is calculated by dividing revenue by ad spend. A value below one shows less generated revenue than the ad spent.

  • Return on Investment (ROI)

    ROI is a measure of the performance of investment. It is the value that you get from what you have invested. Marketers normally measure ROI to determine the success or lack thereof of their campaigns.

  • Retraction

    A retraction is programmed into an ad that is expandable to allow the ad to be reducible to the original dimensions.

  • Rewarded Video Ad

    A rewarded video ad has an attached reward for watching it to the end.

  • Rich Media

    Rich media ad formats are engaging and interactive. They include things such as embedded audios, linkable content and expandable banners. Rich media tends to have more click-through rates even though they have a heavy bandwidth.

  • S

    SDK (A Software Developer Kit)

    An SDK contains all the tools that a developer needs to build and optimize a game. Sometimes developers integrate a third-party SDK within the game.

  • Segments

    Segments are groups of users who share common behaviors or interactions with a game.

  • Screenshot

    A screenshot captures, in static images, how your app looks like. Screenshots are commonly found in the app store landing pages for different apps.

  • Sessions

    A session refers to the frequency at which a player logs in and plays a game.

  • Session Intervals

    A session interval in the time within player sessions; that is, the time between when they close the game and when they open it again.

  • Session Length

    The session length is the amount of time a user spends in your app.

  • Shared Libraries

    Shared libraries are resources and pre-written code reserved for implementing the functions and features on an HTML5 ad. Normally, the resources are downloaded from a specific server to a browser where they are cached. Once there, the shared libraries are shareable with other ads that refer to the library.

  • SSP (Supply Side Provider)

    SSP is a platform for mobile operators and publishers to sell and manage their advertising through a single interface.

  • Standard Ad Units

    A standard ad unit is a set of specifications for an in-page animated or image ad. It creates an inventory framework and is useful in the design of the web pages.

  • Social Media Campaign

    A social media campaign is a combination of marketing efforts aimed at increasing downloads and creating brand awareness.

  • Stickiness

    Stickiness is a metric for the total rates of engagement in a game. It is calculated by dividing the daily active users by the users who are active per month.

  • Streaming Video

    A streaming video distributes video files in a way that the player works on a persistent ad server-browser connection. The video serves different compressions and the user’s bandwidth determines which version they will see. HTML5 files, however, are not stream-able. They depend on bitrate technologies to stream.

  • Submission Lead Time

    The submission lead time is the number of non-weekend and non-holiday days before a campaign goes live. During this time, the publisher has to validate the creatives that the advertiser has submitted for the campaign.

  • Supply (in ad tech)

    Supply describes all the owners of traffic and the traffic itself together with the parties that are associated.

  • T


    Targeting includes identifying how users are different and using that criteria to improve the efficiency of mobile marketing campaigns.

  • Target Audience

    The people intended to receive advertising messages are referred to as the target audience. They are often defined by demographics such as gender and age and psychographics like interests.

  • Technology Partners

    Technology partners are third-parties who give extra insight as to how a user behaves in an app after installing it.

  • Text Ad

    The simplest ad version that has text alone is referred to as a text ad. Typically, it contains a description and a heading.

  • Third - party Tools

    These are tools used by partners to monitor performance metrics and to track in-app events.

  • Third-party Data

    Third-party data is information collected by third-party partners and vendors to add to the first-party information.

  • Third-Party Ad Server

    This is an outsourced company that maintains, manages, tracks, analyzes and serves online ad campaign results.

  • Time in App/Game

    This is the time taken to finish a session for a particular game within a set period.

  • Tracking and Attribution Company

    An attribution company monitors events, allowing third parties to evaluate, improve and optimize the behavior of uses based on the available metrics.

  • Tracking Pixel

    This is a transparent image, (1*1 pixels) that informs where an ad is to be placed. It is often also used to track ads and notify the system the progress of an ad; that is, whether or not it has been served. It also notifies the server when a user has gained access to a web page. The tracking pixel also goes by action tag, beacon, redirect and web beacon.

  • Trading Desk

    A trading desk is used to refer to agency buyer-side platforms.

  • Triggered Message

    A triggered message is an automated communication that the user receives once they select a pre-planned event. The message could be transactional, a purchase confirmation or a ‘thank you for subscribing’ message. However, campaigns can be made such that they send a message when the viewer does not take an action. An onboarding campaign could launch once the user sets up an account, an abandoned cart could push a message five days after it was left or a loyalty campaign can begin once a user reaches a given number of purchases.

  • U

    Unlocked mobile phone

    An unlocked mobile phone can be used with any cellular service.

  • Universal Ad Package

    This is a four ad unit set that UAP compliant publishers give. The formats of these ads are used across the publisher’s site to help widen the reach of the ads. The units are normally, 728×90, 300×250, 160×600, and 180×150 pixels in size.

  • Unity

    Unity is a platform that is used in the development of mobile games, game consoles and web plug-ins.

  • Unique Device Identifier (UDID)

    UDID is a 40-digit serial number that is used to identify devices.

  • User Acquisition (UA)

    The process of user acquisition ends with new users downloading and using an app or interacting in some way with the publisher’s content on their site.

  • User Behavior

    Use behavior is how a game player interacts with different game aspects.

  • User Engagement

    User engagement describes how the user interacts with an app or site. It could be any sort of interaction from signing up for newsletters to buying things online or even commenting on a blog post.

  • User Experience (UX)

    User experience covers all aspects to how the user interacts with a platform or program. It works with UI to dictate design specifications to the needs of a customer.

  • User Initiation

    User initiation is the event where a user intentionally interacts with an ad. Users can decide to interact by clicking on the ad, tapping over it or following a link. However, rollover does not count as user initiation.

  • User Interface (UI)

    UI is a combination of controls and commands that a platform relies on to communicate with a program. It is normally designed to make the user the most receptive they can be by utilizing intuitive work flows.

  • User Profile

    A user profile is a set of data, both behavioral and demographic that is specific to a person.

  • V

    Video Ad Serving Template (VAST)

    VAST is a protocol for serving video ads that is based on XML. It was made to give uniformity to the way video content is transferred across ad servers and on webpages and video players.

  • Video Player Ad-serving Interface (VPAID)

    VPAID establishes a common interface between a video player and a video ad. It supports interactive rich media videos.

  • View-through Conversion (VTC)

    A VTC event happens when a user views an ad only to end up in the app store. In the app store, they could end up at a screen in the app or a landing page. VTCs have no clicks and so will require no attribution. If one compares the number of ad impressions and the conversions, the ratio is known as the view-through rate.

  • View-Through Rate (VTR)

    VTR is the number of ads that are viewed to completion even if they are skippable as a fraction of the initial impressions.

  • Viewability

    Viewability describes the possibility or the opportunities of an ad for being seen by the targeted viewer.

  • Viewable Completion

    This is an ad format that allows you to view video content only after the ad play finishes.

  • Viewable Impression

    In a viewable impression, half of the videos pixels can be seen from an active browser tab for any two seconds.

  • Viewable CPM (vCPM)

    VCPM is a pricing method for ad impressions per viewables. It is the cost of every thousand ads that are served and it is calculated by dividing the CPM by the rate of viewability.

  • Visiblity

    Visibility measures the likelihood of your app being seen in an app store.

  • Virality

    Virality refers to how often players tell others in their networks or on social media about a game they are playing. A game that has been received well by its audience has a high virality.

  • Volume

    The volume control allows the user to control the audio output of an ad. A workable volume control should allow an adjustment that goes up to an output of zero.

  • W


    Webhooks are user callback notifications that trigger actions such as sending a message, account changes and/or making social media posts.

  • WebM

    WebM is a file format for videos that gives HTML5 royalty-free alternatives. The Google-sponsored format has its software distributed under BSD licensing.

  • Whitelabeling

    This is the process of masking or re-branding a product to make it appear like your domain or site. Marketers use whitelabeling to tailor make their emails to their domains so that the end user thinks that the email is from your domain. The email could be from a marketing vendor, CRM or ESP and the user would not know.

  • Y


    Yield is also known as the ad click rate and is the number of clicks as a percent of impressions an ad has within a page.

  • Yield Management

    This is the process that publishers use to understand, influence and anticipate the behavior of a consumer or an advertiser so as to maximize their profits by being able to price their products better and packaging their inventory in an appealing manner while delivering value to the users and advertisers.

  • Yield Optimizer

    A yield optimizer is a mobile ad platform which recognizes appropriate ad units from a pool of network partners and formulates a strategy for the publisher to realize the best revenues possible.

  • Z


    Z-index refers to the content and element layers within the webpage of a publisher. If the publisher is to make user experience seamless, they have to account for content design considerations such as imagery and navigation within the content overlaps.